Speech and text
Speech is the process of speaking, carried out orally or in writing. The result of this speaking is a speech work, or text.
Speech is the realization of a language that can only perform its main function through speech – to serve as a means of communication.
Speech is the necessary basis of human thinking, its tool.
A person’s speech “grows” and “matures” with him. The more words a person knows, the more accurately and vividly he expresses his thoughts, the more pleasant it is to communicate with people around him
What are the types of speeches?
Public speaking is a complex concept that combines speaking in front of an audience, in open spaces, on television, as well as communication with management, an employer and just friendly communication in the company of good friends.
Public speaking is an amazing art. Having a clear purpose of speech in front of you, the process of writing it becomes easier and better.
The goals of public speaking can be very different: to inform, explain, interest, convince, persuade, encourage or inspire.
The rules and requirements of performing in front of the public will help to successfully perform, influence the audience.
To date, there are quite a large number of classifications of types of public speaking. But, the most expedient is to divide public speeches into types according to their function. Namely, according to the purpose the speaker sets in his speech.
It is well known that the same thought can be expressed both in writing and orally. Of course, you can write a text, distribute it to the audience to get acquainted with your ideas, or you can speak to them and verbally present the same ideas.
Types of speeches in public speaking
The language and style of public speaking, its structure, and emotional component directly depend on the goal. For example, reports, analyses or theses are read out in an even, emotionless tone. The style of presentation is businesslike, and the content is dry facts and figures. Congratulations or toasts are read out in a solemn style, targeted, using vivid figurative speech, humor and artistic means of expression.
The following types of public speaking are distinguished:
- Speeches in English
- According to the form of the speech
- By the purpose of the speech
- On special occasions
Speaking in public has more formality than talking, as you need to present yourself professionally. You need to be presentable, be well-groomed and demonstrate positive body language.
Before the performance, you definitely need to prepare. Keep in mind that you will have to communicate with the audience, make eye contact and use the language correctly. You need to show your audience that you are well prepared and know your topic very well.
Types of speeches according to the form
Types of public speech are distinguished by form (forms of public speech): report, message, speech, lecture, conversation.
Performance. Such a public speech is prepared in advance on a specific issue. It is always brief, it may differ in improvisation, but improvisation should not go beyond the topic formulated for the meeting.
Report. This is usually an oral public speech that broadly reveals a certain problem on a specific topic. The time of such performances can range from several minutes to several hours.
Message. It is a very brief summary of thoughts on one topic or issue. Pronunciation and information should be clear, specific, visual and exhaustive.
Lecture. Here the speech is professional, and the presentation comes from a specialist in this field.
Discussion. Such a speech is distinguished by a free form. They necessarily imply interaction with the audience when the audience asks questions to the speaker. Thus, a conversation implies monolog, conversations with listeners and answers to their questions.
Kinds speech according to the purpose
According to the purpose of the speech, there are four main types of public speeches:
Each speech type has a specific purpose, for example some of them are delivered to entertain the audience, while others can be given to inform the audience. When a speaker makes a speech, he has a clear goal in his head, why he wants to convey this message to the audience. There are 4 types of speech.
- Informative speech.
In this case, the speaker has a specific goal to inform the audience about the chosen topic. The speaker shares information about a problem or event.
The main task of such a speech is to convey information to listeners. This form of monolog is used by teachers, lecturers, instructors and many other people whose work is related to learning.
- Protocol speech.
Such a speech has a traditional official character. Protocol texts are used at political rallies, anniversaries, awards or at the beginning of official events.
- Entertaining speech
We hear the presentation of information in this style in humorous broadcasts, at concerts, during informal toasts and at the time of telling stories by the interlocutor.
The main purpose of such performances is to make the audience laugh and enjoy the event. There should also be an easy moment in it.
- Persuasive Speech
Persuasive speech has an impact on the addressee’s position. Its task is to convince voters to vote for a particular candidate in the elections; consumers to choose your product or service; partners to accept your plan, etc.
In a persuasive speech, the speaker tries to strengthen or change the point of view, beliefs, values or feelings of the audience on a particular subject.
This is one of the most popular kind of communication with the public nowadays. Such a speech should convey to the audience the speaker’s position and convince them of its correctness.
A good speaker always thinks about how to convey information to listeners.
An impromptu speech is made when you have not planned or prepared to give a speech in advance. This is a presentation of a short message without preliminary preparation.
The manuscript. This is reading a written message. The speaker keeps his attention on the printed page.
This is the simplest type of public speaking, but it is not as effective as others. The audience may soon lose interest, as the speaker has not engaged the audience and is simply reading the manuscript.
Memorized speech. Effective speeches should be memorized. Take for example actors who speak from memory whenever they perform. This is what makes their game natural. This allows them to make eye contact with members of the audience.
Types of special occasion performances
Sometimes you will be invited to speak at a meeting on some special occasion. This often happens at the last moment, when there is almost no time left to prepare. Such events can be very important in your life and the lives of other people, and therefore they should be treated with all seriousness and attention.
Most of the speeches can be attributed to the following groups: congratulations on the occasion of an award or an award. It can be a speech in honor of a birthday or anniversary; a speech at a wedding; a speech at a funeral. Whatever the reason, you should put all your oratorical skills and abilities into the matter.
Introductory speeches are made in order to introduce the speaker who is going to make a speech. It is given in order to inspire or convince the audience to listen to this speaker. These are usually small and brief speeches.
The main purpose of the presentation speech is to ensure recognition of the recipient’s achievements. These speeches are usually delivered at award ceremonies, when a person presents an award or prize to a person.
A toast is a drinking wish that ends with an offer to drink in honor of someone or something.
Toasts are the most important drinking tradition, an obligatory element of a friendly feast.
Then there are birthdays or anniversaries. For many people, such a day is the most important event in life. When you speak, always speak joyfully and solemnly. Avoid making jokes about the person you are talking about.
The introductory speech allows the recipient to show humility and grace to the award and say a few words of appreciation. Such speeches are made by a person who has just received a prize or an award.
Valedictory speeches are usually given at graduation ceremonies, or when someone leaves the organization, or at farewell parties. It has a festive character and emphasizes the aspiration to the future.
A eulogy is a public speech or a work of art, the main purpose of which is to praise a person. Eulogies are pronounced at funerals and memorial ceremonies to glorify a person who has just died.
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