What is an argument?
An essay is not just an author’s statement on any topic. This is one of the papers that assess the student’s final knowledge of the subject. In particular, the essay-reasoning is part of the final exam and the Unified State Exam. Therefore, it is important to know which basic elements are important in it.
One of these elements is argumentation.
In each special discipline, the concept of “argument” has a special meaning. Arguments in an essay are the same as proofs. They help to confirm this or that assumption, and at the same time to expand the topic, illustrating it with examples.
How you structure the argument in your essay makes a huge difference.
There are special requirements for arguments. They should not contradict each other. The argument should be sufficient for the thesis to which it relates and should be related to the topic and thesis.
Types of arguments
To better select example argument types, let’s turn to theory and find out what they are?
Arguments are proofs given in support of a thesis: facts, examples, statements, explanations. In a word, it is everything that can confirm the thesis.
There are 3 types of arguments that you are likely to encounter when writing a reasoned essay, which we will discuss below.
The style of the argument is classic
One of the most ancient classifications of persuasion methods is the concept of the ancient Greek thinker Aristotle, which divides all possible arguments of the speaker into 3 groups: ethos, logos and pathos. His classical argumentation model is the most common type. The purpose of this model is to convince the reader of a certain point of view.
In order for your speech to be harmonious and convincing, it must contain all the necessary elements:
Moral (correct and appropriate choice of topic, argumentation, ways of addressing the audience and the opponent);
Logical (plan of speech, completeness of content, verbal techniques, sophisms);
Emotional (intonation, facial expressions, gestures, calls, exclamations).
Thirdly, “pathos, logos and ethos” clearly enough share the principles of argumentation in rhetoric, so that the speaker understands well what exactly he can study, what skills it is useful to train.
The structure of the classical model looks like this:
Write the introductory part. In this section, you should briefly explain the topic under consideration and consider the current situation. The introductory part should end with a thesis.
Write the main sections of the article. Carefully state the information, both confirming and refuting your point of view. Provide convincing evidence in support of your opinion, without hiding the data contradicting it.
Be sure to include counterarguments in your essay. Ideas contradict your position, and explain why your point of view seems more logical and correct to you.
Write a conclusion. In this section, you should emphasize your arguments once again, convincing the reader to support your point of view.
Conclusions should not contain any new information. You should summarize what you said earlier.
Often the articles end with a brief look at the further ways of studying the issue under consideration.
Do your own research.
What is the Toulmin argument?
Stephen Toulmin is one of the representatives of the rhetorical direction of the theory of legal argumentation. He developed one of the most well-known models of argumentation analysis. Toulmin is another example of strategy that can be used in heated debates. However, this strategy tries to use clear logic and careful refinements.
Unlike the classical argumentation model, it presents only one side of the argument. The Toulmin reasoning model works well when there is no clear truth or absolute solution to the problem.
The argumentation process in the examples of Toulmin argument essay is represented by the following elements:
Data: facts or evidence used to support an argument.
Statement: a proven statement (thesis).
Grounds: usually hypothetical (and often implicit) logical statements that serve to link a statement and data.
Clarifications hinder arguments.
Refutations: counterarguments indicating circumstances in which the main argument is not true.
Support: statements serve to support clarifications (that is, arguments that do not necessarily prove the main point, but that support the truth of the clarifications).
The Toulmin model reminds us that arguments are usually presented with clarifications and refutations more often than they are accepted as absolute. This allows the reader to understand how to approach the arguments, in what framework they can be accepted and what they are destined to be in general.
Roger’s argument is a negotiation strategy in which common goals are identified. Opposing points of view are described as objectively as possible in order to find common ground and reach mutual understanding agreement.
The purpose of Roger’s argument is to create a situation conducive to cooperation.
The structure of the Roger model looks like this:
Introduction: present the topic as a problem in this way, not a problem.
The opposite position: state the opinion of your opposition objectively, fairly and accurately, so that the “other side” knows that you understand his position.
Context for the opposite position: show the opposition that you understand under what circumstances its position is valid.
Your position: state your position objectively.
The context of your position: show the opposition contexts in which your position is also valid.
Advantages: turn to the opposition and show how elements of your position can work for the benefit of its interests.
You can follow these 3 types of argumentation models in your argumentative essay. These models will help you write a reasoned essay. And, if you want, you can combine them together and create your own argumentation style.
All types of argumentative statements are very easy to trace. However, if you still need help, you can always hire the author of a reasoned essay in the Writerben.
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