Types of Sentences
The English language has a rich history, it has come a long, difficult path of formation. The structure of the language was influenced by external factors (the fusion of the languages of the ancient Celts, a large number of borrowed words) and internal factors (simplification of grammatical constructions, phonetic changes in words). Hello in different languages Now it is difficult to meet a person who would not know English. It takes months and years to study vocabulary and grammar, but in fact, in order to speak, it is enough to know the basic, basic rules, the rest is practice. Analytical languages, and English belongs specifically to this group, have a clear structure of sentences with a certain intonational pattern, division into types. This means that there is a certain set of schemes, having mastered which, you can easily communicate, understand, answer correctly.
A sentence is one or more words related to each other grammatically and in meaning. This is a statement that carries an affirmation, a negative, or a question. And besides, it is a complete unit of language and speech, and therefore there is always a dot, question or exclamation marks, or ellipsis at the end. In English grammar, sentences are classified in two ways: according to the structure and according to the purpose of the statement.
In order for our words to make sense, we form them into sentences. The special structure of English phrases has its own grammatical and lexical secrets. Having correctly arranged all the elements, you will be able to competently speak this foreign language. What is the sentence? This is the structuring of your thoughts, ringed by logical intonation, emotional coloring and grammatical norms. As any reference books say, a sentence is a combination of words that expresses a complete thought and is an independent unit of speech. What is types of sentence?
What are the different types of sentences by structure?
According to the structure, the type of sentences in English and Russian languages are simple and complex. Consider them:
- Simple sentences.
A simple sentence usually has one subject and one predicate. There can be two or three of them, but in this case all subjects and predicates must be homogeneous. In sentences of this type, the subject and verb are necessarily present, they are connected to each other grammatically, in meaning, they form the core of the construction. English language agreed with subject. Even if the sentence contains several different types of words that belong to the same subject, such a sentence is considered simple. Look at sentences types examples:
- He wants to become a writer.
- Can I give you a word of advice?
- James and Jordon are both suitable for this position.
- We will go and find you an elegant dress.
- Complex sentences.
Such sentences consist of two parts, which in English are called clauses (parts of a complex sentence). Clauses are of two types: main clause (main clause) and subordinate clause (subordinate clause). Let’s look at the different types of compound sentences in English.
- Compound sentence.
Compound sentences consist of two or more parts. Both parts are independent of each other, that is, we can break a complex sentence into two simple ones and the meaning will not be lost.
Parts of a compound sentence are joined together by unions and, or, but or with a comma, in which case the union is not needed. Please note that in English, a comma before conjunctions is used optionally, that is, at the request of the author of the words.
- The weather was awful and we decided to stay in.
- I called Jerry yesterday but he wasn’t at home.
- Lenny and Jessy went shopping and we baked an apple pie.
- I was looking in the window, there was no one in the street.
- A complex sentencе.
A complex sentence, like a complex one, can consist of two or more parts. In such sentences, the clause is subordinate to the main clause (main clause + subordinate clause), that is, without the main clause, the clause loses its meaning. We connect parts of such a sentence with subordinating conjunctions: when, if, what, why, because, before, after, while and many others.
- My friend won’t be able to join us (main clause) because he doesn’t feel well (subordinate clause).
- I don’t know (main clause) why he accepted the invitation from a stranger (subordinate clause).
- We will go for a walk (main clause) if the rain stops (subordinate clause).
- I am eager to know (main clause) who is the author of this book (subordinate clause) .
- Complex-compound sentence.
We have looked at what complex sentences look like in their “pure” form. In the realities of the English language, we can also meet a mixed type a sentence: a sentence consisting of several independent and several subordinate parts.
- I bumped into Julia (main clause) when I was going home (subordinate clause) and we decided to have lunch together sometime (main clause).
- When I moved to New York (subordinate clause ), I felt lonely at first (main clause) but then I met Michael and we became good friends (main clause).
- I’ve been always thinking (main clause) that Martins is a kind person (subordinate clause) but it turned out (main clause) that he is mean and greedy (subordinate clause).
Types of sentences according to the purpose of the statement
The purpose of the statement tells how and why we use sentences: we affirm or ask, we order or exclaim. According to this classification, proposals are divided into 4 types of sentence:
- Declarative sentences.
Declarative sentences state facts. With their help, we affirm or deny something. This is the most common type of offer discussed in the previous section.
Word order is standard here: Subject – Predicate – Object – Circumstance.
But at the same time, remember that the circumstance can change its position in the sentence depending on its type. And there is also another member of the sentence – the definition, which can be in any part of the sentence.
As the name implies, the sentence contains a negation. The analogue of the particle “not” in English is “not”. However, not all are so simple. The particle not cannot stand on its own. To add it to a sentence, you need the auxiliary verb do , which is irregular
- Catherine is a sous-chef in that restaurant.
- They want to repair the roof of their country cottage.
- I didn’t go to the gym yesterday.
- Steve doesn’t like cherry ice cream.
- Interrogative sentences.
We need interrogative sentences in order to ask and clarify information. They are general, special, alternative and divisive. In the article “Types of questions in English” we talked about each of them.
The peculiarity is that in all questions, except for the dividing one, the reverse word order is used: auxiliary / modal verb – subject – semantic verb. With special questions, a question word is also used (what?, when?, where?, etc.).
- Do you mind taking Larry with us? (general question)
- Where is he? (special question)
- Are you going to Australia or New Zealand? (alternative question)
- You worked yesterday, didn’t you? (separated question)
- Imperative sentences.
What type of sentence is used to give a command? This type of sentence is needed in order to order, ask or invite someone to do something. In imperative sentences, we often refer to the second person. We can also invite the interlocutor to do something together using the word let’s.
- Please shut the door.
- Just look at her!
- Don’t tell off your children in public! It’s so embarrassing.
- Let’s meet on Saturday.
- Exclamatory sentences.
Such sentences express emotions. On the letter they can always be recognized by the exclamation point at the end. In oral speech, exclamations are usually pronounced loudly and emotionally.
- That’s brilliant!
- I don’t want to take part in this competition!
- The weather is wonderful!
- Good job!
In general, any sentence can become an exclamation point by adding an exclamation mark at the end.
- The apples are sour. → The apples are sour!
How to build sentences correctly?
In English, speech consists of words that form sentences. Syntax studies the structure of a sentence, i.e., the rules for combining words and building sentences from these combinations. A combination of words that expresses a complete thought is called a sentence.
Each member of the sentence can be expressed in one word, phrase, group of words or sentence (subordinate clause).
The sentence distinguishes between main and secondary members of the sentence.
The main members of the proposal are:
The secondary members of the proposal are:
- addition (object)
- definition (attribute)
- circumstance (adverbial modifiers)
The English language is very formalized and structured, so the relationship between the members of a sentence is actually completely determined by the word order. Word order in English is the main means of distinguishing the members of a sentence, due to the almost complete absence of endings and cases.
The word order of an English declarative sentence is built in a strict sequence.
The main members of the sentence, subject and predicate, form the basis of a complete thought and are inextricably linked. The subject always comes before the verb. Additions come immediately after the predicate.
Usually the sentence includes adverbial words. In this case, the circumstances of the place are placed first, then the circumstances of the time. In some cases, the circumstance of time may precede the subject. If there is no adverb of time, then the adverb of place may be before the subject.
These simple schemes for constructing sentences will help you learn English and fill your speech with beautiful turns in the future. Familiarity with the types of sentences is also important in order to better understand and better translate literary texts.